Samuel Philip Townsend (6A03)
|Date of Birth:||1793?|
|Date of Death:||7 Sep 1864|
|Residence:||Pallastown (1) & Garrycloyne (2)|
|Father:||Richard Townsend [6A00]|
|See Also:||Table VIA ; Scrapbook ; Lineage ; Ancestors' Tree ; Descendents' Tree|
Notes for Samuel Philip Townsend
Married 31 July 1836 at Kilshannig, Mallow, Co Cork. Frances Helena Newman was the youngest daughter of Adam Newman (3) of Dromore House, (4) Mallow, Collector of Kinsale whose mother was Mary Townsend . Frances' sister, Mary Newman, married Dr Richard Townsend . See Burke's Irish Landed Gentry 1912 - Bramston Newman.
Samuel studied at Cambridge and succeeded to his father's estate at Pallastown in 1805. In her autobiography, ‘Anything Once’ Samuel’s granddaughter, Dorothy Petrie Townsend (Carew) [6A29], wrote “Summer holidays were spent at Pallastown, a property belonging to my great grandfather Richard Townsend, where my grandfather lived before he bought Garrycloyne as well.” She goes on to recall “My grandfather was many years older than my grandmother, a scholar and an unsociable type who spent many hours in his well-stocked library. He was a classicist and I believe attempted to apply the principles of farming as laid down by the ancient Greeks and Romans to his lands in County Cork, without any conspicuous success”.
Until the mid-eighteenth century there was little incentive for tenants to plant trees on the land they leased, for the trees were legally the property of the landlord. However, by 1765, the tenant’s position had changed in that he was entitled to all the trees he had planted, or their value, on the expiry of his lease. To prove ownership tenants had to register the trees they planted and this was eventually published in a register for the particular county in which they lived. Details of the ‘Register of Trees, Co Cork, 1780 - 1860’ are contained in Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society 1976 Vol. 81, Nos 233-234, pages 39-60 and seven members of the family who subscribed to the scheme are shown as part of the scheme. Between them they planted 63,500 trees of which “Sam Townsend” planted 14,000 in Palacetown in 1811. Other members of the family include Richard Boyle Townsend , Rev Richard Boyle Townsend , John Townsend , Samuel Townsend , Samuel Philip Townsend [6B00] and William Townsend [6B02].
As explained in the ‘Background History’ page, the Act of Union in 1801 and successive reforming measures in the early years of the century drove the Anglo-Irish Protestant community into a position of permanent political minority. Fearing that their ascendancy was being eroded, meetings were held during the early decades of the century seeking to affirm and uphold the integrity of the ‘Protestant Constitution and State’. Press cuttings covering these meetings (all shown in the ‘Scrapbook’ for John Sealy Townsend ) between December 1828 and October 1834 include (with attendees shown in brackets):
Bandon Brunswick Constitutional Club (5) Meeting on Monday 22 December 1828 - Southern Reporter & Cork Commercial Courier of 23 December 1828 and Dublin Evening Mail of 31 December 1828. (John S. Townsend, Samuel Townsend jnr and Thomas Somerville)
Protestant Conservative Society of Cork Meeting in the Imperial Clarence Rooms, Cork in August 1832 - Dublin Weekly Mail of 11 August 1832. (Samuel Townsend, Samuel Townshend and Thomas Townsend)
County and City of Cork Protestant Meeting in June 1834 - Dublin Evening Packet & Correspondent of 1 July 1834. (Thomas Townsend and George Digby Daunt)
Protestant Meeting in Bandon on Tuesday 7 October 1834 - Southern Reporter & Cork Commercial Courier of 11 October 1834. (Samuel Townsend, Samuel Townshend, John Townsend and Thomas Townsend)
The common theme throughout was affirmation of Protestant loyalty to the crown and a commitment to take whatever measures were necessary “to preserve the remnants of the constitution and maintain the integrity of the United Kingdom” in “defence of our liberties and the safety of the Glorious Constitution under which we live”. As shown above, several members of the family (6) attended these meetings but it is not possible to identify them precisely in every case, though eloquent statements by “John Townsend Esq son of the Recorder of Clonakilty” are reported verbatim in the press reports of the meetings in Bandon and these can certainly be ascribed to John Sealy Townsend .
Opposition to Roman Catholic emancipation was not confined to the laity. The Southern Reporter & Cork Commercial Courier of 20 March 1827 reports that the Bishop and seventy-seven members of the clergy, including Richard Boyle Townsend , Chambre Corker Townsend [5D01] and Robert St Lawrence (husband of Elizabeth Townsend ), signed a “Petition of the Protestant Clergy of the United Dioceses of Cork & Ross against Catholic Emancipation” which was submitted to the House of Commons on 2 March 1827. The list of signatories also includes a ‘Thomas Townsend, Prebendary of Island’; this is wrong as page 487 of Volume 2 Brady’s Clerical and Parochial Records shows Horatio Townsend [5D00] as the incumbent!
Not all members of the family shared such views and press cuttings from the Southern Reporter & Cork Commercial Courier and Dublin Evening Packet & Correspondent in 1828 and 1829 respectively show that Horatio Townsend [6B01] and Edward Richard Townsend [6C00] were among the many Protestant Liberals who took a much more conciliatory approach to Roman Catholic emancipation.
Page 114 of Cork Grand Jury (Civil Jurisdiction) To 1899 records that in 1834 ‘Samuel P Townsend of Palacetown, Kinsale, was nominated as one of the 23 Cess Payers for the Barony of Kinsale’, by the County Grand Jury at the last Assizes. (Cess Payers collected rates due from their tenants.)
Samuel acquired Garrycloyne House from John Travers in 1837. Lewis' Topographical Directory 1837, which would have been compiled before that year, records that "To the north of the parish is the manor-house and castle of Garrycloyne, the property of John Travers, Esq., whose ancestor obtained a grant of it in 1604: the castle is a lofty square tower, built in 1535 by the Clancarthys; the house is spacious and well built on rising ground looking over a fine lawn of more than 100 acres, surrounded by fine plantations."
There are references to a ‘Townsend, Samuel P’ in various documents in the period 1844 to 1848 that appear contradictory in themselves as well as being contradictory to the recollections of Dorothy Petrie Townsend. It is not known whether they refer to Samuel alone or to several Samuel Townsends, only one of whom is a member of the family. In short there is a Samuel Townsend of South Mall, Cork, of Garrycloyne, of Killora (7) and of Pallastown.
Page 297 of Aldwell's General Directory 1844-45 records a ‘Samuel P Townsend’ and a ‘William H Townsend’ as solicitors both of 9, South Mall. Living at the same address with matching initials, suggests that this is Samuel and his nephew William Hotham Townsend [6B18]. Page 204 of Slater's Directory Cork & Cobh 1846 records Samuel as an agent for Scottish Union Assurance Company and on page 205 shows 'Townsend Samuel Philip. Attorney. 9, South Mall, Cork'. Aldwell's Directory also records a ‘Townsend Samuel P ‘ living at Garrycloyne and one living at ‘Killora.
The Southern Reporter and Cork Commercial Courier of 5 July 1838 shows Samuel, Jonas Morris Townsend  and Samuel Townsend  as members of the Record Jury at the Summer Assizes 1838. The article is reproduced in his ‘Scrapbook’.
An unsigned letter headed 'Landlords Doing Their Duty' addressed to the Editor of The Cork Examiner dated March 26th 1847 shows Samuel living at Pallastown and appears to place him in poor light during the Great Famine -
You have published a list of the subscribers to the Ballyfeard Relief Fund; it may interest you to know who are the non subscribers!
Sir Thomas Roberts, Bart., Boitfieldstown, Colonel Wm. M. Hodder, Hoddersfield and Dunbogy, Samuel Hodder, Ringabella and Reagrove, Lady Roberts, Oysterhaven, Wm. Harrington, Ranshiane, Mesers. O'Brien and Condon, Broomby, Samuel P Townsend, Pallastown.
All estated gentlefolk these, who leave the expense of providing for the poor, in addition to the trouble of looking after their paupers, to the few subscribers whose names you publish. Their agents also follow the example of their principals. No wonder the Times should say the Irish landlords 'don't do their duty.'"
A ballot of paintings by George Mounsey Wheatley Atkinson held at the Crawford Art Gallery in Cork, in 1848, attracted a good deal of attention, with one hundred subscribers paying one guinea each for tickets. Two young girls from the blind asylum were employed to draw the tickets from the urn, while the High Sherriff of Cork, Mr. T.S. Reeves, supervised the proceedings. Six lots were balloted and No.6 - 'Moon Light Fishing Scene', went to "Samuel P. Townsend, Esq, Killora."
The Tithe Applotment Books in the National Archives of Ireland were compiled between 1823 and 1837 in order to determine the amount which occupiers of agricultural holdings over one acre should pay in tithes to the Church of Ireland. The 1833 entry for the Parish of Clontead records "Samuel Philip Townshend" owning 65 acres in the townland of Mitchelstown East rated at £2-0s-4d and 105 acres in the townland of Palacetown rated at £4-0s-1d. That same year the entry for the Parish of Donaghmore shows Samuel owning 774 acres in the townland of Coolmona with a rateable value of £50-16s-3d, 213 acres in the townland of Knocknanes with a rateable value of £20-19s-9d and 481 acres in the townland of Rathcoola with a rateable value of £20-14s-3d. The summary sheet for these tithes is signed by Samuel's cousin, Rev William Robinson Townsend [6B02].
Parliamentary Papers Volume 38 - Railways: Session 22 January - 28 August 1846 contains a list of people who have subscribe £2,000 or more to “any Railway Subscription Contract”. On page 289 ‘Contracts Deposited in the Private Bill Office in Sess 1846 there is an entry “Townsend Samuel Philip, Killora, Cork” subscribing a total of £7,200.
Griffith's Valuation of Ireland 1848-1864 shows a 'Samuel Townsend Esq' owning land in the parish of Clontead. Most probably this refers to Samuel as 'Lewis' Topographical Directory 1837' shows him living at Pallastown in that parish and further states that "A school is supported by Mr. Townsend".
Unable to meet his financial obligations, like several others in the family who owned property in Ireland, Samuel sold off part of his estate in the Land Court established under the Encumbered Estates Acts of 1848 and 1849. Entry number 5 of Volume 10 of County Cork Encumbered Estates records “5. Garrett Standish BARRY, owner, exparte Samuel Philip TOWNSEND, petitioner- Unsold portions of Leamlara, consisting of the subdenominations of Carrigane, Glengarriffmore, Glengarriffbeg, Doneen, Ballyvatta, Ballinaglough, Moanbawn, Ballynabranagh West and South Condonstown, in the Barony of Barrymore - 1 July 1852- (no maps).” (8)
The Preston Collection IE CCCA/U195 in Cork City and County Archives Section A. Property in Cork City (1716 – 1956) contains the following entry: - “A.8 Red Abbey. 24 April 1868 Landed Estates Court. Rental and Particulars of premises called the Red Abbey, parish of St.Nicholas, City of Cork, to be sold at public auction. Owners through Fee Farm Grant under Renewable Leasehold Conversion Act are Samuel Penrose, Anthony Savage and William Henry Penrose, who brought the property from Samuel Philip Townsend of Garrycloyne in 1855. Contains particulars of tenure, conditions of sale, plus a rental listing tenants, rents, tenure.” Was this a sale to raise further capital?
It appears that Samuel was a Freeman of the City of Cork. Between 1710 and 1841, when the power of admitting Freemen only by birth or right ceased, a total of thirty-three members of the Townsend family were admitted as Freemen.
Samuel was an executor of the will of his brother-in-law - the husband of his sister Jane Martha Townsend [6A09]. Page 107 of The Calendar of Wills and Administration 1858-1922 in the National Archives of Ireland records that the will of "Reverend Rowland Davies Gray late of Myrtle Hill County Cork Clerk", who died on 24 September 1859 at Myrtle Hill, was proved at Cork on 23 November 1859 by "the oaths of Samuel Philip Townsend of Garrycloyne Castle County Cork Esquire and Jane Martha Gray of Myrtle Hill Widow the Executors". Effects under £8,000.
Page 352 of The Calendar of Wills and Administration 1858-1922 in the National Archives of Ireland records that the will of "Samuel Philip Townsend late of Garrycloyne", who died on 7 September 1864, was proved at the Principal Registry on 10 November 1864, by "the oath of Robert Uniacke FitzGerald Townsend of Marlborough Street, City of Cork". Effects under £10,000. (Robert Uniacke FitzGerald Townsend ).
The Rev. C. B. Gibson's book 'The History of the County and City of Cork' was published in two volumes in 1861. The first volume begins with an account of the rivalry of the MacCarthy and O'Brien Gaelic clans, the 12th century Norman conquest and the creation of the Earldom of Desmond, centuries of Gaelic rebellion and the defeat of the Gaelic Irish at the Battle of Kinsale. The second volume covers the 17th century Civil War, the Cromwellian invasion, the Williamite Wars and the 1798 rebellion. The remainder of the second volume describes the government of the county Cork, its baronies and parishes, their histories, notable family dynasties and residences. Samuel, and his cousin, Horatio Townsend [6B01] of Woodside both subscribed to the book.
Samuel's wife, Frances, was according to Dorothy Petrie a most lively character. In her autobiography she records that “My father nearly came to an untimely end in the first few months of his life as he was put out to nurse with a foster mother while my grandmother, her taste for gaieties evidently unquenched after the births of 13 children, went to London for the Season. The foster mother had not enough milk and on his mother’s return my unfortunate father was found to be nearly starved to death.” In a later chapter she recounts that "when my eldest uncle Richard went up to Trinity College, Cambridge, his mother, accompanied by several of his sisters.....took a house and remained there throughout my Uncle’s University years”.
Frances went to live at Wilton, near Cork, after Samuel died. Page 695 of Francis Guy’s County & City of Cork Directory 1875-76 records "Townsend Frances Mrs, Wilton house,Glasheen road, s.w.".
(1) The entry for Pallastown in the National University of Ireland (NUI) Galway Connacht and Munster Landed Estates Database records "Pallacetown House was held in fee by Samuel P. Townsend at the time of Griffith's Valuation, when it was valued at £14. On the 25-inch map, published in the 1890s, it is labelled Pallastown. It is still extant." Pallastown was bought by the Heard family in 1864 - the year that Samuel died.
(2) The entry for Garrycloyne in the National University of Ireland (NUI) Galway Connacht and Munster Landed Estates Database records "Leet records Robert McCarthy occupying Garrycloyne in 1814. "Burkes Irish Family Records" states that Garrycloyne Castle was acquired by Samuel Philip Townshend from John Travers in 1837. The buildings were valued at £45 in the early 1850s and held by Samuel Townsend in fee. The house was later the home of the Barrys. In the 1940s the roof was taken off the house and it has remained a ruin ever since."
(3) The entry for Newman (Dromore) in the National University of Ireland (NUI) Connacht and Munster Landed Estates Database records "This family came from Wincanton, Somerset to county Cork in the mid 17th century and Richard Newman was granted the castle and lands of Drumneen and other lands in the locality, as the manor of Newbury/Newberry, by patent of James II. These lands were formerly in the possession of Sir Richard Kyrle. Richard's grandson Adam Newman purchased the nearby Dromore estate and left this estate to his nephew also named Adam. This second Adam eventually succeeded to both estates. Brady writes that the Dromore estate was purchased by Mr Newman of Newbury from his brother in law Peter Graham. At the time of Griffith's Valuation a descendant, another Adam Newman, held at least 16 townlands in the parish of Kilshannig, barony of Duhallow. John A. R. Newman of Dromore owned 6,146 acres in the 1870s while his cousins Adam Newman of Monkstown Castle owned 3,527 acres and Henry Newman of Betsborough owned 877 acres, all in county Cork."
(4) 'Landowners of Ireland, Co Cork 1876' shows John Newman owning 6146 acres at Dromore valued at £3,375. The ‘1834 Tithe Applotment' for the Parish of Kilshannig, Co. Cork’ shows “Dromore House, Adam Newman Esq. 277 acres”.
(5) First conceived in September 1828 Brunswick Constitutional Clubs were established in Ireland to deny Roman Catholics the right to enter both Houses of Parliament. About 200 clubs were established with a total membership of about 150,000 but they quickly became defunct following the Catholic Relief Act 1829 which repealed the Test Act.
(6) John Sealy Townsend  and Samuel Townsend  can be positively identified. The other contenders are Samuel Townsend  or Samuel Townsend [6A03], Thomas Townsend  or Thomas Townsend , Thomas Somerville (probably the husband of Henrietta Augusta Townsend ) and George Digby Daunt (husband of Helena Herbert Townsend ).
(7) Killora is something of a mystery. Edward Townsend [6B20] lived at Killora, Sligo and Francis Edward Townsend [6C16] who lived in Normanby, Yorkshire, called his house 'Killora' but he has no obvious connection with Samuel or Edward. The entry for Killora in the National University of Ireland (NUI) Galway Connacht and Munster Landed Estates Database records "This house was the residence of the Reverend R. Berry [Bury] in 1837 and was unoccupied at the time of Griffith's Valuation. The Reverend Robert Bury was the immediate lessor and the buildings were valued at £20."
(8) The Encumbered Estates Acts enabled the sale of Irish estates which had been mortgaged and whose owners found themselves in difficult financial circumstances. Unable to meet the demands of their creditors owners sold their estates, or portions of them, to settle their obligations. During and after the potato famine many tenants could not pay their rents, and this left landlords with little choice. However, the sale of land was difficult until the introduction of the Encumbered Estates legislation. Between 1849 and 1857 the Landed Estates Court oversaw the sale of more than 3000 Irish estates. Others in the family who were forced to sell include Jonas Morris Townsend , John Henry Townsend , Samuel Townsend , John Handcock Townsend , John Townsend , Rev Thomas Townsend [6B03], Edward Richard Townsend [6C00].